Monday, 14 April 2014

In a Nutshell - Social Media for Authors

In a Nutshell – Social Media for Authors

As an author I like nothing more than completing a book and starting on the next. Yes I am concerned with sales of my existing books (Goa Traffic and The Bittersweet Vine) but do I want to put time into promoting them? The honest answer is no. I don’t. I find it all rather laborious. All I want to do is sit down and start writing my next book.

If you are an author (Trad or Self Published) you may feel the same. There are two ends of the spectrum: If you are lucky enough to be published by a large publishing house with a large marketing budget behind you then hurrah for you they will probably do most of this for you. Or at least set you up with a webpage, twitter account etc. They will retweet, like and share your posts and ensure you have a following. If you are self published and have done everything from choosing the book cover to getting it on the correct distribution channels, at this point you will  be responsible for getting your own web page up and running, along with your twitter account and Facebook page and no one will tell you about this or give you any support or guidance. It's tough and you have to do it yourself. In the middle of this spectrum are the smaller publishing houses which will do the hard work of getting your book into print and will advise you on what to do to get yourself out there but they wont do much for you. They will just expect you to do it yourself. 

Since publishing Goa Traffic myself  and having The Bittersweet Vine published by Thames River Press I have realised the importance of social media. Over the last three years through reading, experiencing and trial and errorI have picked up a few bits and pieces. I am no expert, but what I have learned I am going to share with you.   There are several reasons you have to get involved with social media.   They are

1 – Creating brand awareness for your pen name
2 – Publicity for your book- which ultimately may lead to sales
3 – Increasing the chances of word of mouth publicity – which is the best and cheapest publicity out there
4 – Social media is the cheapest form of advertising there is (or so I think! This does not include any money you attribute to your time! Because, like writing a  novel it will take time)

It is for these reasons above that I use Social Media (SM). Now there are a gazillion forms of social media you can use but my comments only relate to the ones I use below as I have no experience on the others. They are:

Blog – If you are reading this blog then you are probably familiar with this. It's like an on-line journal
Facebook – Here you can have an author profile/fan page. If people like your page – when you update this page i.e book signing at Waterstones, this will come up on the news page of anyone who likes your page. You can do giveaways, reviews, post pictures etc.
Twitter  - Here you can have an author profile. Tweet (Tell people what you are up to, share links to good sites and share pictures with a public audience)
Good Reads – A book review site where you put the books you have read or are going to read on virtual shelves. Here you can have an author profile linked to your books, conduct book giveaways join forums and groups all about books. 
Pinterest – It’s all about pictures and visuals. You create a profile and virtual pin boards where you pin pictures that you like to boards. I have a writing board, a book marketing board, a Goa Traffic Board, and author board.
Google Plus – A bit like Facebook you can have a public profile and add people to your circles, share writing tips and news stories.
Linked in – A professional networking site. This site has some great groups that you can join for authors. I have had the most engagement and blog views from this site even though I rarely use it.

Other sites I am looking to use are:

Shelfari – Like Good Reads as above
You Tube – Post videos of a reading of your book or an author interview.

So where do you start? Well this Blog post will give you a flavour for improving your social media presence, skills but it wont give you the basics of how to set up an account etc. To do this have a look at various ‘for dummies’ books or cheaper e-books or Google it. Nicola Morgans’ ‘Tweet Right’ e-book is fantastic and targeted at authors as well.

Once you are set up on one or more of the above you can't let your accounts gather virtual dust. You need to utilise them to your advantage and to do this I have summarised my key findings and tips below:

  • ·         Who are your social media supporters? Okay so you've sent a tweet, put a post on Facebook (FB). Who retweets (RT) you? Who likes or shares your status update? Know who these people are and return the favour. Listen to what they have to say. Also target them. If its something specific they support about you make sure they get your messages because they will tell their audiences about your news. Yes, they will act as your mouthpiece – and promotion is always better when it doesn't come directly from you. Why? Because it is more believable. Also this breeds word of mouth advertising which is crucial to building 1) your brand/exposure and therefore popularity and 2) sales.

  • ·         Make friends through SM with other authors (I am not great at this) I have met, in the virtual world of Twitter,  two successful authors. One did a guest post on my blog and one also hosted part of my blog tour. Instantly reaching out to a whole new audience. This way you can create your own little SM community . You’ll also have a set of like minded people or a bunch of readers you can call upon when you need.

  • ·         Start conversations. Don’t just talk at people. If you met someone in the street would you just go on at them about your book that just got a five star review? No. So read their posts, respond to their queries (Always respond to direct questions- its rude not to, and ask questions and it doesn't all have to be about writing and your book. Remember:

  • ·         Be yourself. Readers will buy your books if they like you- don’t be a one dimensional character. You know how characterisation works. You need to be well rounded for people to like you and therefore find your ‘voice.’ People want to hear what you have to say. Again you know about this from writing.  You need readers to like you to 1) be your supporter 2) look at the books you have written. You can only do this if you are authentic and genuine and don’t talk about yourself incessantly. (Which I have done myself! so I know this is not a good move.)

  • ·         Build your brand name – This is your pen name. Like Coca Cola and Cadburys – like Sophie Hannah, like JK Rowling – brands you know and love you have to be aware that your name is your brand. I know authors like to keep ourselves private and of course you can still do this. But you can provide a glimmer of that personality. Why not?  If they like you they are more likely to be a supporter.

  • ·         Use characters – Got a serial or trilogy out? Create a Twitter account/Facebook page etc in the name of your protagonist. Use their voice. Post things they would like. Speak as them. As authors we all want to get inside our character’s heads. This will kill two birds with one stone.

  • ·         Web presence. To improve your brand you must have a website. Someone gave me this advice on my blog when I first started writing and I really believe this has improved my presence and book sales. We live in an e-world. You need a website to showcase your works- It really is like having a shop front and adds to your credibility. Have a look at other author websites for inspiration (see mine here). And dont eb afraid websites are easier to set up than you think. Many companies, like Go Daddy offer a full package with templates for web building as well. 

  • ·         Be a lover not a fighter – You will get a few tweets or comments and reviews which are not favourable. Do not try and defend yourself. Not everyone will like what you have to say and you have to respect that. If you don’t it will just become ugly. And will put people off you. Trust me you don’t want that to happen. Here all publicity is not good publicity. So remember whatever you post before you do so think first as to whether you want to be known as the author who said… (A note on being opinionated - which is different from responding to critics - here being opinionated helps.  You will get more followers and engagement if you don’t sit on the fence all the time. I haven’t managed controversy yet to create a stir, but I am sure some people are great at this without being hugely offensive. And remember people want to hear your voice so speak up!). But always remember if someone has taken time to engage with you respect what they have to say even if you don’t always like what they have to say.

  • ·         Be the Jewel in the Crown. And by this I mean give back – add value to your audience. For example this Blog Post and my ‘In a nutshell’ series was created to give back. Yes, pay it forward. I am not an authority on everything and mostly it’s just passing on tips that I have found useful etc. Initially I thought that I didn't really know enough on topics to pass it on via a blog, but now I just roll with it.  I put my thoughts out there on my blog because they may help someone or provide entertainment at least.

  • ·         Credit your sources.  Repost links to articles, blog posts. If you read a good blog post and you repeat what they say always quote them and provide a link to their blog. Remember always pay it forward.

  • ·         Forums are not old skool! I once thought this, but it’s not true. Log on to writing forums like Wattpad and Writing Forums and get chatting. I did this before I joined Abingdon Writers. Now I rarely use them but where else can you have easy interaction. Join in discussions. Forums are the best way to get your social media juices flowing. Blogging is another simple one. On blogs you can just be yourself, find your voice and be who you are. It’s not staged like a website but still adds value to your brand. Comment on blogs too.

  • ·         Commenting on people’s blog posts and talking in forums leads to interaction and therefore engagement. You need engagement for people to take notice of you. Think of it like a hook in the first chapter of your novel.

  • ·         I haven’t seen you for a while! Being on social media is one thing but as I said earlier you need to keep the information flowing. Don’t do a Houdini. With Blogger you can schedule posts to be posted when you want. Write five in one sitting and drip feed them out.  Tweet – someone tells me 7 times a day is what you need to get noticed. I don’t do this but I know I should. You need to keep the content of your social media fresh and relevant to stay in peoples minds. Plus you need to keep the information flowing because this will encourage engagement and interaction through familiarity. Remember out of sight, out of mind.

  • ·         Cross Pollinate! This is what I refer to when making your post information rich. Add links like I have dotted through this blog, reference articles you have read and link up your accounts! You can use Twitterfeed so that every time you post a blog it automatically puts a link on twitter. You can also link your Goodreads account to your blog posts so they show up on your page and your Google plus account. Use widgets (bits of HTML (computer speak)  you can paste to your blog/website to add buttons and logos showing readers which SM sites you are on so they can follow you there). You can even use Hootsuite to manage all your SM sites. However, before you link everything up think about your audience and what you want to tell each audience. If you have different followers on Twitter than your blog think about whether you want to send the same message to both audiences? Would you send the same query letter to four different agents? Personally I don’t link my Facebook page to my blog or twitter. I just add updates and links manually. I do post my blog updates on Goodreads, Google + and Twitter.  But, for writers, I don’t think this is a huge thing – so cross pollinate away! 

  • ·         Don’t spread yourself too thinly – If you are just starting out pick one or two sites to get involved with I suggest a blog (although it can be labour intensive – it will help you with your writing and help in letting off some steam) and Twitter.  Twitter is not my favourite but it gets you out there. From there you can get involved with other sites.

And finally… don’t expect all this hard work to immediately correlate into sales! You have to be continual in your social media approach. You have to be patient. You can put free software like  Google Analytics on to your website to track where your audience is coming from, how long they stay on each webpage etc. But remember with every tweet, with every post, like and share you are creating a brand for yourself.

That’s all from me. I hope you have found this useful! If you like this post, remember to find me on: 

Twitter : @marissadeluna or click here
Facebook :
Become a friend or fan at Good reads 
Find me on Pinterest: Marissa de Luna 

Ohh and you can buy my books here!

Monday, 7 April 2014

Location, location, location

I hope you enjoyed reading my previous blog post  as part of the My Writing Process Blog Tour. Be sure to check out the writing process of @Martinlastrapes and @timarnot on their blogs too. Their writing process should be published on their blogs today so check out my last blog post for links to their sites.  

Another article from the Crime Writers Association Newsletter caught my eye and this time it was written by psychological thriller writer, A J Waines ( In this issue she wrote about the importance (or not) of the setting of a book. This Friday at the Daunt’s Book festival in London they had an interesting talk about location and setting in novels. Sadly I will miss it. However Waines article gave me something to ponder. She mentioned how the Nordic and scandanavian crime novels have a great setting geographically. Like I have said before you can’t help a bit of weather to help create atmosphere and the culture of a place can link into the way a crime is solved (Think of the Italian laid back Montablano and the Ladies No.1 Detective Agency compared to CSI and Morse – they all draw on their locations as to how the crimes are solved ) but Waines goes on to say that you can create atmosphere anywhere. The geographical setting doesn’t have to be paramount to the story.

This is true. Although I do like to have a setting. Especially if it is exotic. As a child watching Poirot on his adventures always enticed me. Evil under the Sun with Peter Ustinov is still my favourite Poirot!  – Goa is a big part of my life and a big part of The Chupplejeep Mysteries – after all the series is set in one of the local sleepy villages and to me this setting makes the novel what it is. By using Goa as the setting not only do you get to explore the local cultural nuances and the behaviours of people (which I can assure you is very different to anywhere else I have seen) but you get to go back to a more simpler way of living, you get to explore themes that would be relevant to your reader but in a different cultural context, for example how people perceive adultery, murder and so forth.

If you have only ever written books set in one location perhaps write a short story set in another. This is a fab writing exercise. I had great fun doing this for Indian Diaries and perhaps I will do the same when I am off on my summer holidays somewhere in the Med this year. 

Also on an aside note I went to the Oxford Literary Festival on new Indian Writing. It was a fascinating interview with two Indian authors  Prajwal Parajuly (author of The Gurkha's Daughter and other stories) and Anjali Joseph (author of Another Country). It was fascinating and good to know that Joseph reads self published authors recognising that there is good writing out there that has not been published with mainstream publishers.  It was interesting to hear about the  pros and cons of Indian writing in English. The stereotypes that litter such novels (Typical of Chupplejeep I suppose), but good to know also that the stereotypes sell also. That is what the market wants. I suppose stereotypes do exist - and something like cosy crime which is what Chupplejeep is lends itself to this type of stereotyping. ANyway it certainly gave me something to think about in regards to The Chupplejeep Mysteries! 

Also loving The Book Thief which I am currently reading. If you are looking for a good book to read then give this a go! 

Monday, 31 March 2014

My Writing Process Blog Tour!

Today is The Writing Process Blog Tour Day. This blog tour is where writers and authors answer questions about their writing process. One of the founders of my writing group, Gabrielle Aquilina, posted hers last week. Her blog is fab and worth checking out. You can take a look at her writing process here:

Here’s a glimpse into my writing world!

What am I working on?

Poison In The Water is a thriller and is my current work in progress. It’s set between travellers Thailand, glamorous Hong Kong and the bright lights of London.
The book tells the story of Celeste Renshaw, who thinks she has it all; the dream job; the fairytale marriage and money to burn.  But she stumbles on a secret that challenges everything she knows to be true.

My other project is a collection of flash fiction set around India which accompanies a collection of photographs. I’m working on this with photographer and good friend, Urmi Kenia. You can see one of the work in progress stories and pictures on my website. We hope to publish this collection later in the year.

I am also working on a light-hearted detective series set in rural Goa. Under The Coconut Tree is the first book in the series entitled The Chupplejeep Mysteries. In the book we are introduced to the loveable Detective Chupplejeep and his assistant Police Inspector Pankaj as well as a whole host of endearing characters. In Under The Coconut Tree Detective Chupplejeep is charged with finding the killer of Sandeep Shah, but with threats from the new Commissioner, his fortieth birthday approaching and a girlfriend who is desperate to see a ring on her finger, Chupplejeep is feeling the pressure.

I hope that Under The Coconut Tree will not only be an entertaining read, but it will also give the reader a glimpse into rural Goan life. I grew up in Goa and so I hold this place close to my heart.

How does my work differ from others of its genre?

I like to put a fresh spin on topical themes. In my last novel, The Bittersweet Vine, I focused on the rare phenomena of hysterical amnesia and Goa Traffic concentrated on child trafficking. As well as providing escapism for the reader, I like to make the reader think what they would do in a similar situation to the protagonist.

Why do I write what I do?

I grew up on detective fiction from Nancy Drew to Point Horror. Now I love novels full of suspense such as those written by Sophie Hannah. I also love Alexander McCall Smith’s No.1 Ladies Detective Series which I took inspiration from for the Chupplejeep Mysteries. I enjoy writing what I would like to read. For me a book should be pure escapism, where the story transports the reader to a different world and takes them on a roller-coaster of a ride through a multitude of emotions.

How does your writing process work?

I love writing and I hate editing. So as soon as I finish a first draft I usually get an idea for another book. I usually scribble down a rough plot-line (in about 20 bullet points) and then have to use every ounce of willpower not to start writing the next book. I use the plot-line described above as I go, and of course it changes as I write. The further I get into the plot, the less I refer to the plot-line bullets, but I know if I get stuck I have something to refer to. Generally the end result is wildly different to what I had first imagined. Mostly this is because the characters take on their own personalities and pull me in different directions. At some point mid-manuscript I draw a little spider diagram with the protagonist in the middle and all the relationships plotted out around them. This way I can clearly see the way the characters interact with each other. I also add motivations and any major characterisation to it, which makes for an easy reference tool.

Editing is laborious as my first drafts are terrible. I usually have at least three edits before the manuscript is in a readable state. Sometimes I’ll go through and just check dialogue or characterisation on an edit and forget everything else. Other times I do a ‘deep clean’ edit and examine each chapter to within an inch of its life. As you can probably tell from this post my grammar is shocking! I have a million grammar books. It just doesn't sink in. Next on my to-do list is to complete a course in grammar. Because of this I usually have to get a proof reader to look through my work before I send it out.

I work full time so finding time to write can be difficult. I usually set myself deadlines by when I need to finish certain drafts so that I keep the momentum going. I finish work slightly earlier on a Wednesday and so most of my writing is done then. But mostly I snatch and hour where I can, because a Wednesday evening is never enough!

Thanks for stopping by! Continue with the tour on the blogs of these lovely writers (see below) next week!


Martin Lastrapes

Martin Lastrapes is a best-selling novelist whose debut novel, Inside the Outside, won the Grand Prize in the 2012 Paris Book Festival. 

You can see his writing process here:

Tim Arnot

Tim Arnot claims to remember the Sixties, although that almost certainly means he wasn't there. In his defense though, he does claim to have been very small. He had a college education from which he spectacularly failed to get any qualifications at all. But that didn't stop him from going on to be a successful writer of programs for computers and apps for iThings (if you buy a train ticket in the UK from one of those touchy-feely machines, there’s a good chance that Tim wrote the software inside it – unless it screwed up, in which case it was someone else).

At school, his teachers described him as "Quite good at English."

Tim lives in Oxfordshire with his kindle and a collection of iThings.

You can see Tim’s writing process here:

Tuesday, 18 March 2014

NaPoWriMo is almost here!

If you follow this blog you'll know that poetry is not my forte but recently I have been thinking about it. And then in my first edition of Mslexia I read about NaPoWriMo which is basically 30 days - 30 poems for the month of April. I don't think I'll be any good, but confining my poetry to the privacy of my own notepad why not! I'm not going to sign up but I'm going to do it for myself. who knows at the end of April I may share one of the poems with you. In preparation I have started a fresh notebook (don't you love that feeling of a new notebook?) and I am getting my creative juices going in preparation for April. I am freewriting on random objects as an initial prompt.

Anyway if you have been thinking about poetry and want to give it a bash this is the perfect opportunity to get started. The official website is: 

Wednesday, 12 March 2014

Remember: Plot is no more than footprints...

“Remember: Plot is no more than footprints left in the snow after your characters have run by on their way to incredible destinations.”
—Ray Bradbury, WD

So as I embark or writing a crime series I have subscribed to the Crime Writers Association newsletter. So far I have haven’t had time to read much of it but the its I have read have been informative and helpful. In particular the contents of the article entitled ‘Are Crime Writers psychopaths?’ written by Pauline Rowson rang true.

In another article of the same news letter Pauline Rowson also gives valuable advice about the characterization/character development for the detective of your piece. The detective should not only solve the crime but also learn something about themselves along the way. This is not very Midsomer Murders. I can’t remember Detective Barnaby learning anything about himself whilst arresting the vicar for murder, but it is quite true of most detectives. Take for example DCI Banks which has been on the telly recently. His on screen relationship with his colleague develops though each episode and through different cases we learn of different facets of DCI Bank’s character. He realizes things about himself he never knew before especially when a case pushes him to the limit.  It draws us into his life more. We want to watch the next episode- why? Not just to find out who the killer is but to also find out whether DCI Banks will get together with the colleague (her name escapes me). I think this is one of the key ingredients of a good crime series. 

I have also finished reading The Memory Game by Nicci French. It’s set in the 90’s nut nevertheless it was an interesting read. The characters well crafted each with flaws that you can identify with. I particularly liked the ending which I didn’t see coming and I would definitely recommend this as a read. Strangely it focuses on amnesia after a traumatic event. Perhaps I should have read it before I wrote The Bittersweet Vine. Eerily I felt that parts of the books are similar but altogether different at the same time. It just goes to show the different views and facets of amnesia and just how interesting this topic is. Amnesia makes for a great plot thickener doesn’t it?!

Anyway as my last post said I am half way through editing Poison in the Water. My collaborator on Indian Diaries has also got back to me with her corrections. I’m not sure whether I should start editing those 10,000 words or if I should finish Poison first. Decisions, decisions!

I have just started reading The Book Thief yesterday and it looks promising… lets see how that goes.  

Wednesday, 5 March 2014

Get it down. Take chances. It may be bad...

Get it down. Take chances. It may be bad, but it’s the only way you can do anything really good.
- William Faulkner

I have been good recently. I have been plodding on with my ms for Poison in the Water- I’m half way! Hurrah! It feels good to reach this milestone. Not only that but I have been blogging (Check out my nutshell posts below on how to improve the dialogue in your ms and setting tone and mood in your ms) and I have started a new notebook for The Body in the Bath. The ideas are already coming to me and I need to scribble them down as I have promised myself not to start writing the draft until I have finished with this draft of Poison.

I have started reading a book by Nicci French as well. It’s called The Memory Game. I recently saw the authors on TV and I have heard good things about Nicci French so thought I would give it ago. So far so good. I also have bought The Cuckoos Calling (The JK Rowling one) and The Book Thief – They were 99p on Kindle and I wanted to read them so may as well stock pile! And I am half way through my New Years resolution which is not to buy new clothes till May. It’s going well so far, but I am buying way more books (fiction and research books on criminology and forensic psychology) and I’ve just subscribed to Mslexia Magazine. So much for saving money. 

I am also working on a new ‘In a Nutshell’ post on social media- inspired by a writing buddy who finds it all a little daunting! I am hoping to complete and post in the next couple of weeks and I think of all the posts it will be useful to all authors out there.

So still no improvement on my kindle ranking for Bittersweet. In fact it’s falling every day. What else can I do? Another attempt to ask people to write reviews on my personal Facebook page – was a poor cry for help and the direct question was not very social media friendly or so the marketing manager at work told me! I suppose it was a poor bit of spamming. I thought as its juts going to friends it didn’t matter but apparently it does! However, the low ranking, is making me pause for thought.  It really makes me wonder because I feel as the author that Bittersweet is a much better book than Goa Traffic and yet Goa Traffic is still selling well.  Are people reading Goa Traffic and being put off by Bittersweet? But then Goa Traffic has received some good reviews so maybe not. It’s a tricky one and I think much of the problem with Bittersweet (and this will apply to many trad published or self published books) is as follows:

1) It falls into a standard genre category with no differentiation – The tags are psychological, thriller etc. How many psychological thrillers are there out there?

2) The price – It’s currently £3.59 as set by the publisher. Is this too much for an unknown author? From my own experience the book buying public out there and I am talking kindle readers in general are extremely price sensitive. Unless you know the book is already a huge success and you are dying to read it- unfortunately people don’t want to part with more than a couple of quid.

3) Publicity .Now this is a tricky one. Goa Traffic has had the same number of publicity shots as Bittersweet plus Bittersweet has the backing of a publisher. Yet the ranking of Bittersweet (That’s all I can go on at this stage) is well below GT. In addition to the publicity I did for GT with Bittersweet I have had the official book launch and I have approached libraries and reading groups plus I did a little blog tour. Perhaps I need to think again and get some new ideas on how to promote Bittersweet!

4) I guess the one main difference is that GT is established. It’s been on sale since 2011 and I know that a book is for life – not just the year it is published in (especially with the e-book and POD). On this basis maybe I need to wait it out and see if, over time, my sales improve. 

And on that note I will end this post with one last question - What are you reading this World Book day? 

Sunday, 2 March 2014

In a Nutshell - Writing Dialogue

In a nutshell – Writing Dialogue

"The dialogue is generally the most agreeable part of a novel, but it is only so long as it tends in some way to the telling of the main story."
- Anthony Trollope

I could go on at length about dialogue but when I started doing this In a nutshell series thingy it was just to give you a flavour so to speak of bits I had picked up over the course of writing since 2007. So here is a snapshot of the things I have learned along the way about writing effective dialogue!

Now I have to admit when I started writing I thought that dialogue had to reflect real life dialogue. Yep big mistake. It doesn’t. It shouldn’t. In real life you don’t do the two things vital to dialogue in a novel and they are:

1) Creating tension or providing information
2) Moving the plot along

Well I suppose you could say that three things are vital because creating tension and providing information are two items and you can do all three with dialogue. These points are the essential markers for dialogue. If you don’t have them in your bit of speech - you probably don’t need the bit of speech there in the first place. Yes it’s nice to have a bit of conversation for pleasantries but if it’s more than a couple of lines you will lose the reader’s interest and they will skim read. Trust me I’ve made this mistake in my first book and I have read several books where I have had no interest in the characters dialogue because they are not really telling me anything!

Dialogue is a great way to show conflict and create tension. You can have characters fighting and a bit of interior monologue to show what people are really thinking. Not only will this break up the dialogue, but it will give you an insight into a certain character- Showing in fact - an element of a character. With subtle nuances, characters behaviours and reactions to spoken words you can give the reader an insight into a character. Use subtext- it is your friend. With effective dialogue you can do so much!!!

You can also explore characters motivations with interior monologue and subtext and you can make your characters more three dimensional here.  Is your character a junkie or a granny. Use the phraseology they would use and what kind of mood are they in? If they are depressed- perhaps they would use a lot of negative words. If they are happy they may burst into song- Okay two extremes here but you know what I mean. This will add atmosphere and mood to your writing which we have previously discussed in the previous ‘in a nutshell’ blog posts.  Ensuring Characters have their own way of talking can reduce the need for ‘he said, she said’. However note that said is the best tag to use as it disappears into the page. It’s like a word that readers don’t acknowledge and it’s much better than using substitute words such as ‘she cackled,’ or ‘she whispered’ kind of thing.

The last three points are these

1) Remember to trim the fat! Yes I use this phrase all the time. I write the dialogue I want in my first draft, It’s long and quite frankly borning and tedious when I read it back. I go through and cut out any words that are not required. I add a bit more shrugging, subtext and scene setting.
2) Set the scene in between dialogue. Where are they chatting? Whats the weather like- does it reflect atmosphere (bring in symbolism here) – Yes there is so much you can do with dialogue. 
2) Remember also not to have continuous dialogue as in everyone saying something. Through in a shrug, grunt or a nod to a conversation instead of the spoken word and this will make your dialogue flow better!